Abhijeet Gadekarâ shared a screen shot with me on Twitter of Google testing large arrows on the left and right side of the page, used as a way to navigate to page two or three and back of the search results listings. I personally cannot replicate this test and I am not sure if maybe a browser extension is causing this, but that seems highly doubtful.
Here is a screen shot you can click on to enlarge:
The test is based in India, on Google India, but again, I tried replicating this multiple ways and failed to.
Maybe Google wants to see if this leads people to click to more search results or not. But Google, I would think, would want the searcher to find the search result listing they want at the top of the first page listings.
Forum discussion at Twitter.